Articles

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Non-tariff measures
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Non-tariff measures: the biggest challenges in 2023
19-11-2023

Where do we draw the line between non-tariff measures that help governments achieve important goals (e.g. sustainability) and non-tariff barriers that unnecessarily restrict trade? How can SMEs ensure compliance in an increasingly complex regulatory environment (international sanctions, export controls, SPS, CBAM, REACH, forced labour, etc.)? As a distributor, how do you control the supply chain with multiple points of sale and resale, especially in relation to export control? These and other related questions were addressed at the 18th Authors' Meeting in an exchange of views between experts from different countries - the EU, the UK, the US, Brazil and Pakistan.

restrictions, trade barriers
Non-tariff measures
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Non-tariff measures: the biggest challenges in 2023
19-11-2023

Where do we draw the line between non-tariff measures that help governments achieve important goals (e.g. sustainability) and non-tariff barriers that unnecessarily restrict trade? How can SMEs ensure compliance in an increasingly complex regulatory environment (international sanctions, export controls, SPS, CBAM, REACH, forced labour, etc.)? As a distributor, how do you control the supply chain with multiple points of sale and resale, especially in relation to export control? These and other related questions were addressed at the 18th Authors' Meeting in an exchange of views between experts from different countries - the EU, the UK, the US, Brazil and Pakistan.

restrictions, trade barriers
Non-tariff measures
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EU sanctions against RU and BY: non-tariff measures or non-tariff barriers?
19-11-2023

This article discusses the challenges faced by the Bulgarian automotive industry in the context of EU sanctions against Russia and Belarus. A national customs risk profile has been introduced, triggered by the export of certain automotive parts of HS Chapters 84 and 85 to Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, Kazakhstan and others. The documents and information required from the consignee of the goods in the third country and the end user of the goods (if different) in order for these goods to be exported are problematic, as it is often very difficult, if not impossible, to obtain this data.

Boryana Peycheva

restrictions, trade barriers
Non-tariff measures
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EU sanctions against RU and BY: non-tariff measures or non-tariff barriers?
19-11-2023

This article discusses the challenges faced by the Bulgarian automotive industry in the context of EU sanctions against Russia and Belarus. A national customs risk profile has been introduced, triggered by the export of certain automotive parts of HS Chapters 84 and 85 to Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, Kazakhstan and others. The documents and information required from the consignee of the goods in the third country and the end user of the goods (if different) in order for these goods to be exported are problematic, as it is often very difficult, if not impossible, to obtain this data.

Boryana Peycheva

restrictions, trade barriers
Students' section
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The significance of double taxation avoidance agreements in international trade
19-11-2023

Understanding the terms Double Taxation and Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements (DTAAs) is crucial in the field of international taxation, as they encapsulate complex scenarios that impact cross-border trade and investments. This paper aims to unravel the conceptual framework of DTAAs, assessing their advantages and disadvantages in the realm of international trade. By presenting case studies, this paper endeavors to delineate how DTAAs influence international trade decisions, offering a pragmatic understanding of their significance.

Karolis Zelenkauskas

duties, taxes
Students' section
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The significance of double taxation avoidance agreements in international trade
19-11-2023

Understanding the terms Double Taxation and Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements (DTAAs) is crucial in the field of international taxation, as they encapsulate complex scenarios that impact cross-border trade and investments. This paper aims to unravel the conceptual framework of DTAAs, assessing their advantages and disadvantages in the realm of international trade. By presenting case studies, this paper endeavors to delineate how DTAAs influence international trade decisions, offering a pragmatic understanding of their significance.

Karolis Zelenkauskas

duties, taxes
Non-tariff measures
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Non-tariff measures: their purpose and effect on trade
05-11-2023

According to UNCTAD, 90 % of global trade is subject to non-tariff measures (NTMs). NTMs can increase trade costs three times as much as tariffs. NTMs often lack transparency. This increases uncertainty and unpredictability in global trade. At the same time, NTMs can be beneficial for international trade, as they guarantee quality through certification, provide information about products through labelling, reflect a commitment to socially important issues through labelling and environmental standards, etc. This article briefly describes what non-tariff measures are, what purpose they fulfil and what impact they have.

Rizwan Mahmood

restrictions, trade barriers
Non-tariff measures
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Non-tariff measures: their purpose and effect on trade
05-11-2023

According to UNCTAD, 90 % of global trade is subject to non-tariff measures (NTMs). NTMs can increase trade costs three times as much as tariffs. NTMs often lack transparency. This increases uncertainty and unpredictability in global trade. At the same time, NTMs can be beneficial for international trade, as they guarantee quality through certification, provide information about products through labelling, reflect a commitment to socially important issues through labelling and environmental standards, etc. This article briefly describes what non-tariff measures are, what purpose they fulfil and what impact they have.

Rizwan Mahmood

restrictions, trade barriers
Non-tariff measures
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REACH chemical regulations in the EU and the UK – international conflict?
02-11-2023

In the manufacturing industry, there are often complex supply chains where chemical substances cross borders between the UK and the EU several times. In this article we provide an overview of how REACH works in the EU (including the current revision) and in the UK, the implications for businesses and also address the Windsor Framework for Northern Ireland. Most companies use chemicals, sometimes even without realising it, therefore you need to check your obligations if you handle any chemicals in your industrial or professional activity. You might have some responsibilities under EU REACH or UK REACH or both.

Mark Rowbotham

restrictions, trade barriers
Non-tariff measures
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REACH chemical regulations in the EU and the UK – international conflict?
02-11-2023

In the manufacturing industry, there are often complex supply chains where chemical substances cross borders between the UK and the EU several times. In this article we provide an overview of how REACH works in the EU (including the current revision) and in the UK, the implications for businesses and also address the Windsor Framework for Northern Ireland. Most companies use chemicals, sometimes even without realising it, therefore you need to check your obligations if you handle any chemicals in your industrial or professional activity. You might have some responsibilities under EU REACH or UK REACH or both.

Mark Rowbotham

restrictions, trade barriers
Point of view
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The invisible paper chain in today’s Customs document flow and how to break it using Artificial Intelligence
19-10-2023

As in other sectors, the logistics sector has benefited from digitization in recent years, allowing a smoother flow of goods across the globe. These advancements have promised, and to some extent also delivered, efficiency and convenience. However, a more ‘inconvenient truth’ today is that a considerable volume of critical information still circulates in the form of non-standardized documents sent via email. Today, new developments in Artificial Intelligence are proving promising in enabling the data extraction of these unstructured documents and scans to finally fully break the paper chain.

Bram Vanschoenwinkel

Point of view
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The invisible paper chain in today’s Customs document flow and how to break it using Artificial Intelligence
19-10-2023

As in other sectors, the logistics sector has benefited from digitization in recent years, allowing a smoother flow of goods across the globe. These advancements have promised, and to some extent also delivered, efficiency and convenience. However, a more ‘inconvenient truth’ today is that a considerable volume of critical information still circulates in the form of non-standardized documents sent via email. Today, new developments in Artificial Intelligence are proving promising in enabling the data extraction of these unstructured documents and scans to finally fully break the paper chain.

Bram Vanschoenwinkel

Point of view
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The importance of data in DHL Express
19-10-2023

Quality data is the lifeblood of an efficient Customs clearance process. All Customs tasks and responsibilities are performed, at least in part, on the basis of data received from businesses engaged in trade – for example, data for purposes of revenue collection, risk management, admissibility checks, resource allocation and cooperation with other agencies, as well as the collection of statistical data for macroeconomic decisions.

Sandra Fischer , Asha Menon, Marcelo Godoy Rigobello, Ben Bridge

knowledge management
Point of view
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The importance of data in DHL Express
19-10-2023

Quality data is the lifeblood of an efficient Customs clearance process. All Customs tasks and responsibilities are performed, at least in part, on the basis of data received from businesses engaged in trade – for example, data for purposes of revenue collection, risk management, admissibility checks, resource allocation and cooperation with other agencies, as well as the collection of statistical data for macroeconomic decisions.

Sandra Fischer , Asha Menon, Marcelo Godoy Rigobello, Ben Bridge

knowledge management
Panorama
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Transforming trade: how Dubai Customs is harnessing AI for enhanced trade facilitation and border control
19-10-2023

In a world where international trade is the lifeblood of economies, ensuring the smooth flow of goods across borders while maintaining rigorous controls is a challenging balancing act. Dubai, one of the world’s busiest trade hubs, is meeting this challenge head-on by investing in advance technology and embracing the power of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to enhance trade facilitation and border control. These efforts are poised not only to bolster Dubai’s position as a global trade and tourist hub, but also to set new standards for Customs operations and services worldwide, which has reflected positively on Dubai Customs client happiness index reaching a score of 98% for smart and electronic services. Some of the projects developed using AI are presented below.

Ahmed Mahboob Musabih

trade topics
Panorama
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Transforming trade: how Dubai Customs is harnessing AI for enhanced trade facilitation and border control
19-10-2023

In a world where international trade is the lifeblood of economies, ensuring the smooth flow of goods across borders while maintaining rigorous controls is a challenging balancing act. Dubai, one of the world’s busiest trade hubs, is meeting this challenge head-on by investing in advance technology and embracing the power of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to enhance trade facilitation and border control. These efforts are poised not only to bolster Dubai’s position as a global trade and tourist hub, but also to set new standards for Customs operations and services worldwide, which has reflected positively on Dubai Customs client happiness index reaching a score of 98% for smart and electronic services. Some of the projects developed using AI are presented below.

Ahmed Mahboob Musabih

trade topics
Point of view
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Identifying chemicals precisely through trace analysis is now a reality, opening new doors for Customs officers
19-10-2023

Customs administrations have a full array of tools and technologies at their disposal to test material and substances – both in the field and in their labs. These tools all have benefits and limitations. This article introduces an innovation which enables field officers to analyse trace materials left on any items and obtain the specific name of a trace level substance. Not only can they confirm or allay their suspicions rapidly, but they can also proceed to physical inspection with all the precautions needed.

John Johnson

risk management
Point of view
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Identifying chemicals precisely through trace analysis is now a reality, opening new doors for Customs officers
19-10-2023

Customs administrations have a full array of tools and technologies at their disposal to test material and substances – both in the field and in their labs. These tools all have benefits and limitations. This article introduces an innovation which enables field officers to analyse trace materials left on any items and obtain the specific name of a trace level substance. Not only can they confirm or allay their suspicions rapidly, but they can also proceed to physical inspection with all the precautions needed.

John Johnson

risk management
Point of view
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How Smart Containers could contribute to Customs operations efficiency
19-10-2023

One of the chapters of the innovation white paper[1] recently published by the International Association of Ports and Harbours (IAPH) is titled “Innovation in ports – not only about technology”. It argues that innovation is also about process efficiency, and this includes how data flows among stakeholders and how it is used. Today, thanks to IoT technology, information flow can be generated by cargo containers themselves and be shared across many actors, improving the quality of transport and logistics performance by enabling collaboration among stakeholders.

AELER Technologies SA

Point of view
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How Smart Containers could contribute to Customs operations efficiency
19-10-2023

One of the chapters of the innovation white paper[1] recently published by the International Association of Ports and Harbours (IAPH) is titled “Innovation in ports – not only about technology”. It argues that innovation is also about process efficiency, and this includes how data flows among stakeholders and how it is used. Today, thanks to IoT technology, information flow can be generated by cargo containers themselves and be shared across many actors, improving the quality of transport and logistics performance by enabling collaboration among stakeholders.

AELER Technologies SA

Point of view
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Leveraging AI for Customs classification purposes
19-10-2023

There are many discussions about the efficiency of classification assistance tools. In this article, we argue that an AI-based tool, if well-built and properly used, can support classification experts, enabling them to focus their attention on unusual and difficult product classifications.

Thibo Clicteur , Dries Bertrand

classification
Point of view
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Leveraging AI for Customs classification purposes
19-10-2023

There are many discussions about the efficiency of classification assistance tools. In this article, we argue that an AI-based tool, if well-built and properly used, can support classification experts, enabling them to focus their attention on unusual and difficult product classifications.

Thibo Clicteur , Dries Bertrand

classification
Point of view
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Elevating partnerships between Customs brokers and Customs authorities – the way forward
19-10-2023

One of the benefits of being a Customs broker providing services at the international level is experiencing the flexibility and efficiency of many Customs authorities. One of the challenges is dealing with inconsistencies in how they apply regulations, and the lack of a standard in the processes and technologies they use, which prevents them from collaborating more productively with each other. In this article, we compile input from companies, organizations and individuals to give an overview of the challenges they face, explain existing co-operation mechanisms between Customs, brokers and intermediaries, and explore what more could be done.

Michael Douglas

customs brokers
Point of view
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Elevating partnerships between Customs brokers and Customs authorities – the way forward
19-10-2023

One of the benefits of being a Customs broker providing services at the international level is experiencing the flexibility and efficiency of many Customs authorities. One of the challenges is dealing with inconsistencies in how they apply regulations, and the lack of a standard in the processes and technologies they use, which prevents them from collaborating more productively with each other. In this article, we compile input from companies, organizations and individuals to give an overview of the challenges they face, explain existing co-operation mechanisms between Customs, brokers and intermediaries, and explore what more could be done.

Michael Douglas

customs brokers
Dossier
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Revitalizing cooperation between Ports and Customs
18-10-2023

Maritime transport carries 90 percent of global merchandise trade[1], and impediments to ports’ logistical chains have tangible repercussions in terms of higher trade costs and even shortages of goods and materials. The chains include numerous entities, spanning shipping lines, carrier agents, terminal operators, freight forwarders, road haulage operators, train operators, Port State Control, as well as Customs administrations and other regulatory authorities.

Kunio Mikuriya

Dossier
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Revitalizing cooperation between Ports and Customs
18-10-2023

Maritime transport carries 90 percent of global merchandise trade[1], and impediments to ports’ logistical chains have tangible repercussions in terms of higher trade costs and even shortages of goods and materials. The chains include numerous entities, spanning shipping lines, carrier agents, terminal operators, freight forwarders, road haulage operators, train operators, Port State Control, as well as Customs administrations and other regulatory authorities.

Kunio Mikuriya

Flash Info
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Must read: How will the State think with the assistance of ChatGPT?
18-10-2023

The Foundation for International Development Studies and Research has published a working paper, written by Thomas Cantens of the WCO Secretariat’s Research Unit, that examines the implications of the use of generative artificial intelligence (GAI) in the field of public administration. This article provides a brief summary of the content of that paper.

Flash Info
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Must read: How will the State think with the assistance of ChatGPT?
18-10-2023

The Foundation for International Development Studies and Research has published a working paper, written by Thomas Cantens of the WCO Secretariat’s Research Unit, that examines the implications of the use of generative artificial intelligence (GAI) in the field of public administration. This article provides a brief summary of the content of that paper.

Flash Info
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WCO Council adopts three HS Recommendations
18-10-2023

Three HS Recommendations were adopted by the WCO Council in June 2023. These Recommendations relate to expected amendments and invite Parties to the HS Convention to insert new subheadings in their national statistical nomenclatures as an interim measure until the next version of the HS enters into force on 1 January 2028.

classification
Flash Info
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WCO Council adopts three HS Recommendations
18-10-2023

Three HS Recommendations were adopted by the WCO Council in June 2023. These Recommendations relate to expected amendments and invite Parties to the HS Convention to insert new subheadings in their national statistical nomenclatures as an interim measure until the next version of the HS enters into force on 1 January 2028.

classification
Import taxes
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Management of import taxes other than duties
11-10-2023

What are the pitfalls and opportunities of 42 import procedure? What about post-Brexit VAT? What do you need to know about import GST (VAT) in Canada? Do traders and brokers understand excise risk? What about "domestic" import taxation in Latvia? The CBAM – what does the future hold? These were the main questions discussed during the 17th Authors' Meeting on 24 August. We invite you to read the key points from this meeting in the article below.

duties, taxes
Import taxes
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Management of import taxes other than duties
11-10-2023

What are the pitfalls and opportunities of 42 import procedure? What about post-Brexit VAT? What do you need to know about import GST (VAT) in Canada? Do traders and brokers understand excise risk? What about "domestic" import taxation in Latvia? The CBAM – what does the future hold? These were the main questions discussed during the 17th Authors' Meeting on 24 August. We invite you to read the key points from this meeting in the article below.

duties, taxes
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