June 25, 2023
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The Zes Zollner Electronic case: exploring the scope of amending customs declarations

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In a recent ruling, the Court of Justice (the Court) delivered its decision in the case of Zes Zollner Electronic, addressing the issue of amending customs declarations and the consequences of failing to declare the correct quantity of goods. The case involved a Romanian company, Zes Zollner Electronic (ZZE), which declared only half of the actual quantity of goods received, resulting in a customs infringement.
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Case law
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Is payment of customs duties suspended if a dispute is brought before a court?
19-05-2024

Did you know that customs duties are one of the European Union's own resources? Therefore, when you challenge customs decisions to calculate customs duties, you are essentially challenging EU revenue. In this overview of a recent judgement by the Court of Justice of the European Union, we answer the question of whether, in the event of a dispute with customs, the collection of import duties (customs duties and VAT) is suspended until the outcome of the proceedings is known.

Dr Aistė Medelienė

duties, taxes, violations
Case law
icon
Is payment of customs duties suspended if a dispute is brought before a court?
19-05-2024

Did you know that customs duties are one of the European Union's own resources? Therefore, when you challenge customs decisions to calculate customs duties, you are essentially challenging EU revenue. In this overview of a recent judgement by the Court of Justice of the European Union, we answer the question of whether, in the event of a dispute with customs, the collection of import duties (customs duties and VAT) is suspended until the outcome of the proceedings is known.

Dr Aistė Medelienė

duties, taxes, violations
Topic spotlight
icon
EU Customs Reform: Who is the ‘importer’ and what are their responsibilities?
21-04-2024

Continuing a series of articles on the main legal aspects of the proposed EU customs reform, the author focuses on a key player in the import process: the importer. The Commission proposal is based on a new vision of this actor and his responsibilities. This article describes and analyses the three variants under this concept: the basic rules for importers, the special rules for deemed importers, and the rules for indirect customs representatives who are treated as the (deemed) importer. Furthermore, it addresses the question of what happens when the wrong person has been named as an importer by an actor in the supply chain or a customs representative.

Michael Lux

law, import
Topic spotlight
icon
EU Customs Reform: Who is the ‘importer’ and what are their responsibilities?
21-04-2024

Continuing a series of articles on the main legal aspects of the proposed EU customs reform, the author focuses on a key player in the import process: the importer. The Commission proposal is based on a new vision of this actor and his responsibilities. This article describes and analyses the three variants under this concept: the basic rules for importers, the special rules for deemed importers, and the rules for indirect customs representatives who are treated as the (deemed) importer. Furthermore, it addresses the question of what happens when the wrong person has been named as an importer by an actor in the supply chain or a customs representative.

Michael Lux

law, import
Origin
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Two lessons from case law on the origin of goods
20-03-2024

Editors' note: The recent 20th Authors' Meeting dealt with issues of origin for customs purposes. At this meeting, the author presented two Israeli court cases - one concerning an unauthorised person signing the certificate of preferential origin and the other concerning whether pistachios originated in Iran or Turkey (non-preferential origin for the application of prohibitions). The cases are not necessarily new, but they deal with relevant questions: What happens if the proof of preferential origin is signed by an unauthorised person? Can the authorisation be granted retrospectively? Is the 'statistical and reasonableness check' sufficient for customs to reject the declared non-preferential origin of the goods?

Omer Wagner

violations, origin
Origin
icon
Two lessons from case law on the origin of goods
20-03-2024

Editors' note: The recent 20th Authors' Meeting dealt with issues of origin for customs purposes. At this meeting, the author presented two Israeli court cases - one concerning an unauthorised person signing the certificate of preferential origin and the other concerning whether pistachios originated in Iran or Turkey (non-preferential origin for the application of prohibitions). The cases are not necessarily new, but they deal with relevant questions: What happens if the proof of preferential origin is signed by an unauthorised person? Can the authorisation be granted retrospectively? Is the 'statistical and reasonableness check' sufficient for customs to reject the declared non-preferential origin of the goods?

Omer Wagner

violations, origin
Case law
icon
Fraudsters in the supply chain: Who pays taxes as a result of fraudulently completed formalities?
01-10-2023

Presumption of guilt - you'll say it doesn't work that way. Unfortunately, in tax law, the taxpayer is presumed to be guilty of breaching the tax law unless he proves otherwise. The only question is whether, even if proven not guilty, the taxpayer will not have to pay the tax. In a recent judgment, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) clarified whether the owner of an excise warehouse (whose guilt has not been proven) will have to pay the suspended taxes (in this case almost €3 million) in a case where the evidence of the completion of the formalities has been falsified and where the goods have been transported to an unknown destination. The clarifications are important not only for the owners of excise warehouses, but also for all users of suspended tax regimes - transit, customs warehousing, temporary admission for processing and others - in order to better understand, assess and manage the risks involved. The CJEU has also clarified when goods are considered "lost" and no tax is due.

Ingrida Kemežienė

duties, taxes, violations
Case law
icon
Fraudsters in the supply chain: Who pays taxes as a result of fraudulently completed formalities?
01-10-2023

Presumption of guilt - you'll say it doesn't work that way. Unfortunately, in tax law, the taxpayer is presumed to be guilty of breaching the tax law unless he proves otherwise. The only question is whether, even if proven not guilty, the taxpayer will not have to pay the tax. In a recent judgment, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) clarified whether the owner of an excise warehouse (whose guilt has not been proven) will have to pay the suspended taxes (in this case almost €3 million) in a case where the evidence of the completion of the formalities has been falsified and where the goods have been transported to an unknown destination. The clarifications are important not only for the owners of excise warehouses, but also for all users of suspended tax regimes - transit, customs warehousing, temporary admission for processing and others - in order to better understand, assess and manage the risks involved. The CJEU has also clarified when goods are considered "lost" and no tax is due.

Ingrida Kemežienė

duties, taxes, violations
Case law
icon
Transport services VAT exempt because already in import tax base? You will need to prove it!
24-09-2023

The Romanian company provides transportation services. It transported goods from the port of Rotterdam (the Netherlands) to Cluj-Napoca (Romania) under transit procedure. Goods were released into free circulation in Romania. It treated transportation service as VAT exempt because it assumed that transportation cost was included into the import VAT taxable base. Tax authorities claimed otherwise: the taxpayer failed to provide documents confirming that the transportation cost was included into the import VAT taxable base. Consequently, they denied the exemption. The dispute between the company and the tax authorities reached as far as the Court of Justice of the EU (CJEU), which recently issued clarifications on the application of the provisions of the VAT Directive in this case.

Mark Rowbotham

duties, taxes, valuation, import
Case law
icon
Transport services VAT exempt because already in import tax base? You will need to prove it!
24-09-2023

The Romanian company provides transportation services. It transported goods from the port of Rotterdam (the Netherlands) to Cluj-Napoca (Romania) under transit procedure. Goods were released into free circulation in Romania. It treated transportation service as VAT exempt because it assumed that transportation cost was included into the import VAT taxable base. Tax authorities claimed otherwise: the taxpayer failed to provide documents confirming that the transportation cost was included into the import VAT taxable base. Consequently, they denied the exemption. The dispute between the company and the tax authorities reached as far as the Court of Justice of the EU (CJEU), which recently issued clarifications on the application of the provisions of the VAT Directive in this case.

Mark Rowbotham

duties, taxes, valuation, import
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