June 05, 2021
en lt
Types of free trade agreements

Photo by Lucas George Wendt on Unsplash

There are four types of free trade agreements (FTAs): first and second generation agreements, Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Areas, and Economic Partnership Agreements.

First generation agreements

First generation agreements focus on tariff elimination, mostly concluded before the European Commission’s 2006 “Global Europe” Communication:

  • Agreements with Norway, Switzerland, eight Mediterranean countries, Mexico and Chile;
  • Customs Union with Turkey;
  • Stabilisation and Association Agreements with five Western Balkan countries containing additional provisions to prepare for their progressive integration into the EU market.

Second generation agreements 

Second generation agreements extend to new areas, including on competition, protecting intellectual property rights, customs cooperation, commitments on services and establishment and sustainable development:

  • Agreements with South Korea, Colombia, Peru and Ecuador, Central America and Canada.

Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Areas (DCFTAs)

Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Areas (DCFTAs), concentrate on the tightening of economic links between the EU and its neighbours by bringing their regulatory framework closer to EU law, notably in trade-related areas:

  • Agreements with Ukraine, Georgia and Moldova.

Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs)

Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) with African, Caribbean and Pacific regions focus on the development needs of these countries.

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Source: 2019 Annual report on the implementation of EU trade agreements by European Commission

Comments ()

en
What strategies may EU traders use to overcome trade barriers?
31-05-2022

Recently, the European Commission (EC) terminated the examination procedure concerning obstacles to trade applied by Mexico (see Commission implementing decision (EU) 2022/161, 3.2.2022). This was because the dispute regarding Tequila export licenses was resolved in favour of EU exports by domestic courts in Mexico. The example reveals that exporters can cope with trade barriers in several ways: in courts, and through complaints to the EC.

Dr. Ilona Mishchenko

trade policy
en
What strategies may EU traders use to overcome trade barriers?
31-05-2022

Recently, the European Commission (EC) terminated the examination procedure concerning obstacles to trade applied by Mexico (see Commission implementing decision (EU) 2022/161, 3.2.2022). This was because the dispute regarding Tequila export licenses was resolved in favour of EU exports by domestic courts in Mexico. The example reveals that exporters can cope with trade barriers in several ways: in courts, and through complaints to the EC.

Dr. Ilona Mishchenko

trade policy
en
What exporters should know about licensing barriers?
03-04-2022

Due to the non-transparent import licensing requirements in many countries, such as Turkey, India, Malaysia, Brazil, and Argentina, to mention a few, exporters are denied trade opportunities, which these days are especially important for those who lost their export markets after Russia invaded Ukraine. The article introduces basic information on automatic and non-automatic licensing and provides practical examples of some non-transparent licensing regimes worldwide that must be considered when choosing new export markets.

Dr. Ilona Mishchenko

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en
What exporters should know about licensing barriers?
03-04-2022

Due to the non-transparent import licensing requirements in many countries, such as Turkey, India, Malaysia, Brazil, and Argentina, to mention a few, exporters are denied trade opportunities, which these days are especially important for those who lost their export markets after Russia invaded Ukraine. The article introduces basic information on automatic and non-automatic licensing and provides practical examples of some non-transparent licensing regimes worldwide that must be considered when choosing new export markets.

Dr. Ilona Mishchenko

trade policy
en, lt
Trade Barriers Regulation of the EU
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Part of the EU’s trade rules enforcement arsenal, the Trade Barriers Regulation is a legal instrument that gives EU companies, industries, associations and Member States the right to lodge a complaint with the Commission about trade barriers in third countries.

trade policy
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Trade Barriers Regulation of the EU
03-04-2022

Part of the EU’s trade rules enforcement arsenal, the Trade Barriers Regulation is a legal instrument that gives EU companies, industries, associations and Member States the right to lodge a complaint with the Commission about trade barriers in third countries.

trade policy
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Krishna Barad

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India - UK FTA: opportunities for businesses
09-01-2022

India has more than 20 Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) in place and is negotiating FTAs with many new trade partners. One of the important ongoing negotiations is the India-UK Enhanced Trade Partnership (ETP). What opportunities do FTAs open for businesses and what could be expected from the India-UK ETP?

Krishna Barad

trade policy
en, lt
Do we have time to prepare for the introduction of trade defence measures?
31-12-2021

Importers, especially small and medium-sized enterprises, are often unaware of trade defence instruments (TDIs) and face the consequences of newly introduced measures unprepared, thus incurring unforeseen costs. Is it possible to prepare for this and thus, albeit partially, manage the risks associated with the introduction of TDIs? One mean to manage such risks would be regular monitoring of the regulatory environment. Of course, this requires resources, but it is equally important to know the process and deadlines for setting the TDI, as well as why different sizes of measures apply to the same product imported from the same non-EU country and where to find the necessary information. Thus, this is to be discussed in the article.

Jovita Dobrovalskienė

trade policy
en, lt
Do we have time to prepare for the introduction of trade defence measures?
31-12-2021

Importers, especially small and medium-sized enterprises, are often unaware of trade defence instruments (TDIs) and face the consequences of newly introduced measures unprepared, thus incurring unforeseen costs. Is it possible to prepare for this and thus, albeit partially, manage the risks associated with the introduction of TDIs? One mean to manage such risks would be regular monitoring of the regulatory environment. Of course, this requires resources, but it is equally important to know the process and deadlines for setting the TDI, as well as why different sizes of measures apply to the same product imported from the same non-EU country and where to find the necessary information. Thus, this is to be discussed in the article.

Jovita Dobrovalskienė

trade policy
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