22 октября, 2019
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Правила происхождения

Photo by 童 彤 on Unsplash

Международного определения происхождения нет, хотя проводится различие между двумя системами: преференциальной и не преференциальной. В случае преференциального происхождения всё основано в основном на двусторонних или многосторонних соглашениях. В случае не преференциального происхождения каждая страна применяет свои правила, хотя в рамках некоторых региональных экономических союзов не преференциальные правила согласованы для всех государств-членов соответствующего союза.

Всемирная таможенная организация (ВТО) в Международной конвенции об упрощении и согласовании таможенных процедур (пересмотренная Киотская конвенция) определяет правила происхождения как «конкретные положения, разработанные на основе принципов, установленных национальным законодательством или международными соглашениями («критерии происхождения»), которые страна применяет для определения происхождения товаров».

Страну происхождения не следует путать со страной отправки (т. е. последней страной, через которую товары прошли). Целью правил происхождения является определение «национальности» товара. Определение страны происхождения, наряду с тарифной классификацией и таможенной оценкой, является важным фактором для определения суммы подлежащих уплате таможенных пошлин и налогов. Происхождение товара также будет определять, где это уместно, применение мер торговой политики (квоты, антидемпинговые пошлины, торговое эмбарго…).

Объяснение предоставляется Академией ВТО (WCO Academy), которая предлагает и онлайн-курс на данную тему (на английском языке): Правила происхождения.

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